Publishing, Print on Demand, Self-publishing in India from Team

e-book formats made easy


Kindle ImageIn July 2010, reported that sales of its Kindle e-books outnumbered that of hardbacks on its store. Bibliophiles who swore by printed books have begun to see the advantages of e-books today. Although they don’t completely switch over to e-books, they have invested in an e-reader and have a small library of e-books loaded on it.

In India, e-readers have not yet become as popular as they have in America, but the trend is catching on.

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines an e-book as “a book composed in or converted to digital format for display on a computer screen or handheld device.”

E-books offer several advantages to the modern way of life. You can load hundreds or thousands of books into your e-reader, based on its capabilities, so the weight you have to lug around diminishes remarkably. E-books never go out of print or fade. Often, it is cheaper to print out an e-book than to buy a print version. Lots of e-books are offered free online, especially those that are in the public domain.

Many e-readers offer features like changeable font size, good readability in all kinds of light from bright sunlight to total darkness, translation into other languages, bookmarks, highlighting, dictionary reference, annotations, text-to-speech software for visually impaired or dyslexic readers and so on. Also, some e-readers let you shop for books directly from the device.

As with anything, there are disadvantages to e-readers and e-books. An e-reader may be stolen or damaged, destroying your e-books as well so you need to re-purchase the e-books. E-book formats change and evolve over the years, so e-books may need to be converted to be kept up to date. Books with pictures, diagrams or maps are more convenient to read in print. As many bookworms will say, a printed book has a feel and personality of its own, which an e-book just does not have.

That said, e-books have been around for a decade and are here to stay. As an author or publisher, it is important to keep up with the trends and know what formats work best for your books so you can make the best of the technology and use all available channels to reach readers.

The standard PDF

Adobe’s PDF (portable document format) is a common format for electronic documents and e-books around the world. Most devices can read PDFs and, in that sense, it is a universal format that represents the original set page exactly on any device. But it has its limitations—PDF is a fixed size format, so the text is not reflowable. Zooming in to increase the text size causes some of the text to go off the screen so that you need to scroll to see the rest. This makes for uncomfortable reading. If you fit the entire page to the screen, the font often becomes too small to be legible.

In reflowable text, the length of a line or page is not predefined; instead, the text is unrestricted so that fewer words are visible if the font size is increased or more fit in the screen if the font is smaller. Also, if the screen is small, fewer words are shown per line and a fewer number of lines appear per screen. So, the concept of a defined page goes away. This is similar to how Internet browsers often display text.

If you use fancy features that a particular e-book creation software offers, not all e-readers may be able to handle it, so it becomes difficult to ensure that your books appear as intended across all readers. PDF, on the other hand, is a mature format and most platforms have good PDF readers available all over the world.

Main formats today

Most new e-book formats are HTML based but also contain extra information specific to books such as the concept of chapters, bookmarks, table of contents and meta-data like author name, publisher and ISBN.

While there are several e-book formats available in the market today, including the popular Mobipocket and Topaz, the main formats that authors and publishers need to be aware of are PDF, EPUB and AZW.

The format widely considered the standard today is EPUB, which is used by most devices including iPad, Nook, Pi and Wink. Many free applications are available for reading this format on computers and smart phones. Google Books offers free e-books in this format. Several online libraries also offer EPUB formatted books. This is easily the most important format for e-books today. created a proprietary format called AZW for its Kindle e-reader and all Kindle applications. If you use’s Direct Publishing platform, it can convert several formats, including EPUB, into AZW on its own. So, if you have your files prepared in EPUB format, you’re pretty much sorted out.

While EPUB looks like a perfect answer to the issues with PDF as an e-book format, it has its limitations, too. Reflowing can be a problem if the book is image heavy (like picture books or comics) or uses very wide tables. While people have worked around these issues, EPUB is still not ideal for every kind of book—especially if relative positioning of content is important.

There are a few questions that authors and publishers have about security of e-book files and DRM, which we’ll address in a separate post.

Here’s a quick glance comparison of EPUB and PDF formats:

Formats PDF EPUB
Reflowable text No Yes
Retains original format and settings for uniform viewability Yes No
Free e-reader applications available for the format Yes Yes
Multiple platform on Mac OS, Windows, UNIX and mobile phone OS Yes Yes
Extensibility (number of software providers worldwide who use the format for creation, plug-ins, consulting, training and support, etc.) Many, worldwide Fewer, as it is relatively new
Supported on e-readers All All except Kindle, which does not support it directly
Security features and DRM Yes Yes
Supports colour images, video, Flash Yes Yes

Formats authors should use

It is clear that both EPUB and PDF have their benefits and weak points, so which one should authors prepare their books in?

If the content is suitable, that is, if it is mainly text and can be reflowed well, prepare it in both formats. If the content is not suitable for EPUB format, you can prepare it as PDF alone. If you already have the e-book in one format, there are plenty of converters available that will convert the book from one format to the other, but how well this works is based on the content and what these formats are good for (see table).

You could decide on the format based on your target readership. For international readers, EPUB would be a better option as e-readers are rapidly gaining popularity in the west, but for an Indian readership, you could get by with a PDF for now.

However, as e-readers become more common and these formats evolve, the decision on formats may need to change.

How to prepare the book in different formats will be covered in a separate article.


  1. i am an english poet. i have published innumerable short poems in various ejournals, notably poemhunters, voicesnet, coffeeconnectionpoets poetfreaks etc. i want about 100 selection poems on human love to be epublished and to be indigital publishing. google search: will bring you my poems for sampling.
    advise me how to proceed.
    thanks, rm shanmugam

  2. i am satisfied with you.

  3. i am convinced

  4. Please check our website for publishing details and send an e-mail to for queries.

  5. Thanks for the article,
    Just wanted to know if the E-PUB format can hold the TTF(say an Oriya true type font) using which the document is typed? PDF does hold the TTF/Fontd used in teh PDF so that same font is not required to be installed by the PDF reader? Just wanted to know how does it work for EPUB if we create an document with a local TTF?

    Thanks and regards

  6. @Santanu – The E-PUB format specifications support font-embedding. But many of the devices may not support it yet. So, if you need specific fonts, it is advisable to produce a book in PDF format as well.

  7. Many Disadvantage is there in e-Publishing
    1. e-book reader device very expensive
    2. advertising and marketing is very challenging job.
    3. lack of technical knowledge in readers.

    • A e-book reading device is not a requirement for reading e-books. All e-books can be read on the computer as well as most of the mobile phones. Given the number of people with mobile phones in India, this actually increases the reach of your book even beyond that of paper book.


  8. There is no harm in e-book publishing. You can access international audience much more easily. If part of your target audience is not in the e-book market, you should go for a combination. It is not an either-or situation.

  9. Your ebooks should support bookmarks so the readers can go to any topic and back simply by clicking it in the table of contents.

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